The New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective is conning the government, New Zealanders, and prostituted women alike

The New Zealand Prostitutes Collective played an integral role in the full decriminalization of prostitution in New Zealand, and receives millions of dollars in grant money from the government, but they’re not fulfilling their end of the bargain.

The cover of “Stepping Forward.” (Image: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Imagine you’re starting a new job, and your induction manual features a detailed table of sexually transmitted diseases, with descriptions of symptoms, modes of transmission, and treatment protocols. There are some accompanying grainy, indistinct images of diseased penises and vulvas , and, at first glance a significant portion of the manual is distinctly “medical” in nature.

So, where are you working? A sexual health clinic? A community medical centre? Are you teaching sex education at the local high school (and if you are, do you wish they had better graphics)?

Or, are you starting out in the “sex work” business? Has someone at the New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective (NZPC) handed you the 125 page guide as part of its “New Workers’ Pack”?

The NZPC was founded in 1987, ostensibly to aid the New Zealand government’s efforts to address the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Since then, the organization has received ongoing government funding. In 2010, they produced their guide for new “sex workers,” called Stepping Forward.

The NZPC has, since its inception in 1987, relied on a funding arrangement with the New Zealand Ministry of Health in order to survive. Official sources reveal this funding now tops out at around $1 million a year. The obligation of the NZPC in this cozy arrangement is to promote safe sex practices. In 1996, Former Christchurch School of Medicine public health academic, Jane Chetwynd, explained the role of the NZPC as follows:

“The main aims of the collective when it was established were to work towards the prevention of the spread of HIV infection amongst sex workers in a number of ways: to establish a community base in each of the main centres (and in other centres as appropriate); to employ coordinators in the main centres; to make contact with people in the sex industry; and to compile and distribute a magazine for people working in the sex industry.”

In order to fulfill this obligation and ensure the NZPC could continue to receive the funding and government patronage to which it had become accustomed, the Stepping Forward guide was produced. Almost half the content in this manual is concerned with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). [Although the arrangement of the material could do with a revamp — the section entitled “working wisely” starts the reader on a detailed journey through the minefield of STIs, but is interrupted almost immediately by a chapter on “bi-doubles” (i.e. threesomes).]

So, our novice “sex worker” learns she (the material is almost entirely directed at women servicing male clients) must watch out for certain vaginal symptoms, get regular sexual health checks, and always use condoms properly or risk disease and/or prosecution under the Prostitution Reform Act of 2003.

Turning the page, she reads, under the heading “bi-doubles,” that “the elusive threesome is a fantasy most, if not all, heterosexual males have thought and dreamed about.” There are plenty of tips on negotiating this service, if women in prostitution are pressured to provide it, emphasizing the “workers’” empowerment and control, and suggesting they mock the client behind his back (being careful of mirrors) in order to get through the session.

Then it’s back to the ugly reality of sexually transmitted maladies, kicking off with cystitis. Women starting out in the sex trade are advised that it can “be helpful to avoid having intercourse… until the symptoms have passed,” though this is, of course, “not very practical for sex workers.” Unlike women engaged in any other occupation, women in prostitution need to abandon their day-to-day work routines if they’re suffering from cystitis.

We can sympathize with the advice — cystitis is an unpleasant, inconvenient affliction, and vaginal intercourse both exacerbates the misery and encourages the persistence of symptoms — but considering all this, can we truly relate to the underlying premise of Stepping Forward: that “sex work” is just  a job like any other? Women who are not in prostitution can, practically, avoid intercourse and continue work while their body heals from a bout of cystitis.

For those in prostitution, cystitis is merely the tip of the sex-related disorders iceberg, with pelvic inflammatory disease, pubic lice, scabies, thrush, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, hepatitis A, B and C, HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, and non-specific urethritis lurking ominously below the surface.

The NZPC guide canvasses each of these with an admirable mix of medical information and accessible language, but there are several manifest issues with the content of the advice offered.

For each of the conditions, except pubic lice and scabies (but including HIV, as well as infectious syphilis and gonorrhea), “sex workers” are advised:

“You should be able to work just as long as you use protection when having sex… Since you will always use protection when having sex, you shouldn’t need to tell the client your current sexual health status. However, if a condom breaks during sex you should advise the client to get a sexual health check-up.”

Since pubic lice and scabies can be obvious, the advice is more circumspect: stop working; disinfect sheets, towels etc; make sure regular clients, who you may have infected, don’t reinfect you; and advise fellow workers of your condition in case you have johns in common. On a lighter note, however, the guide says, “Most sex workers have abandoned pubic hair and, as such, have reduced the risk of acquiring pubic lice.” (How does one “abandon” pubic hair, by the way? Leave it at the train station like a broken umbrella, or drop it off at the local pubic hair shelter for care and re-homing? Newsflash: it keeps growing. So in fact women either painstakingly and painfully laser it all off or continuously remove it through other painful means.)

Perhaps most disturbingly, the NZPC advises that “so long as you use protection during sex, you do not have to disclose your HIV status.” The guide adds that “no law can prevent you from working in the sex industry” if you are HIV positive.

Remember, this advice is being dispensed by a government funded organization that has agreed to assist in reducing the incidence and spread of STIs in New Zealand.

So, how do their recommendations fit with formal health department guidelines?

First, HIV, AIDS, gonorrhoea, and syphilis are infectious diseases notifiable to the New Zealand Medical Officer of Health.

Second, the New Zealand Sexual Health Society guidelines recommend that any person diagnosed with an STI makes contact with past sexual partners to advise them of their diagnosis, as follows:

Who do I need to contact?

Usually anyone you have had sexual contact with (including oral, vaginal or anal sex) in the last three months, as advised by your doctor or nurse, even if you used condoms. [Emphasis added.]

When should I do this?

  • As soon as possible after finding out that you have an STI
  • Before you have sex with an untreated contact”

These guidelines are endorsed by the New Zealand health department as representing the government’s policy with respect to STIs.

So, we have a government that recommends notifying sexual partners of an STI diagnosis, even where protection was used during sex, funding an organization that advises women in prostitution, who have numerous, anonymous sexual partners, to not disclose STI infection to their “clients,” and saying that it is safe to keep working as long as protection is used.

Is the incongruity not glaringly apparent? Is the government turning a willing blind eye? And is the NZPC taking advantage of that, perpetuating the myth that they are assisting government policy on STIs by educating women in prostitution while offering blatantly conflicting advice?

The number of women in prostitution in New Zealand is unknown, though the NZPC has been quoting an unsourced figure of approximately 8,000 “sex workers” for many years. As of 2005, the New Zealand Ministry of Justice was supposedly undertaking a project to collect and collate data on the sex trade in New Zealand, although a substantive report is yet to materialize.

In fact, the only information addressing numbers of people working in the sex trade in New Zealand and the “form of employment” of those in prostitution dates back to a 2001 New Zealand Police effort to canvass “sex workers” in major metropolitan and provincial centres. The police study estimated around 4,500 persons (mostly women servicing men) in prostitution, with the vast majority (around 90 per cent) working in massage parlours, escort agencies, or privately.

These figures predate the much vaunted decriminalization of prostitution in New Zealand with the Prostitution Act of 2003, so, while they are of historical interest, they are useless in today’s context.

The New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective, with its self-proclaimed broad reach into the “sex worker” community and its oodles of government cash, is, theoretically, ideally placed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of prostitution in New Zealand, and generate a thoroughly informative report.

But, it hasn’t, and it’s fair to ask why. Maybe the collective isn’t as widely supported by “sex workers” as it claims. Maybe it’s unable — or unwilling — to undertake an unbiased investigation.

For its continuing, generous, monetary support, the government gets nothing more than a (frankly, dangerous) guide for new “sex workers” from the NZPC — a lengthy, boring read that probably does more service as a doorstop than a genuine reference for women in prostitution. The Ministry of Health is also provided a “health service” that even the most fervent champion of decriminalization of prostitution in New Zealand — Dr Gillian Abel — considers inadequate.

In a 2014 article published in the New Zealand Medical Journal, she says:

“It would be beneficial to sex workers if they were able to make better use of NZPC for check-ups as these would be more thorough as disclosure is not an issue. However, clinics are only held on NZPC premises in the three main cities and these clinics do not provide adequate consultation hours.”

There’s clearly a certain self-serving synergy at play here. The government decriminalized prostitution (by one vote on the floor of the house) in 2003, and has a vested interest in not looking like a bunch of complete morons.

All evidence suggests prostitution and sex trafficking have increased since the enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act, but no attempt has been made to investigate the current state of the New Zealand sex trade. Instead, the government throws vast sums of money at a sex work lobby group and persuades themselves that women in prostitution are being adequately informed and cared for in the “workplace.”

It’s a con job of epic proportions and, like the minions grovelling before Hans Christian Andersen’s allegorical Emperor, many New Zealanders who should know better are keeping the ruse alive, lest they appear to be the fools they truly are.

And the NZPC is laughing all the way to the bank.

Bronwyn Williams is a retired lawyer and social worker from Tasmania, Australia.

Guest Writer
Guest Writer

One of Feminist Current's amazing guest writers.

Like this article? Tip Feminist Current!

Personal Info

Donation Total: $1

  • Maria Gatti

    Yes, I agree. The only positive aspect of this pile of shit was the image showing a sex worker looking more Maori than anglo; while I haven’t researched sexual exploitationin NZ, I’d be very surprised if Indigenous women weren’t among its main victims.

    • Martin

      You a entirely correct in your presumption

  • Bronwyn Williams

    This isn’t an article about sexual health clinics in New Zealand, government provided to otherwise. It’s about the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective and its questionable use of very generous government funding. Funding that produced, over 10 years ago (I don’t believe it’s been updated), a manual of advice on the management of STIs in prostitution that conflicts with government endorsed advice on STIs for the general population.

    And that same funding bounty only manages to sustain an ‘inadequate’ sexual health service for those in prostitution in New Zealand.

  • marv

    White male colonization of Indigenous people in New Zealand has been legalized for ages with some access to health clinics. Does that justify invasion and occupation? Does lawful prostitution make it not an act of male supremacy? Fuck head.

    • Martin

      The indigenous people were killing each other tribes including woman and children before the blasted white man got involved too

      • marv

        The civilization engineers used this very racist rationale to seize their lands. You are perpetuating First Peoples as savages without rights no matter what your intentions are.

  • M. Zoidberg

    Go read this: Prostitution Narratives: Stories of Survival in the Sex Trade.

    If you still have the same whack-ass opinion after reading it — Go fuck yourself.

    • Martin

      Thanks for this info Zoidberg, i will include this for my Sunday reading tonight

  • Meghan Murphy

    You’re not blocked, dude. We just moderate comments. Calm down.

  • Meghan Murphy

    If you want to keep commenting here, you’re gonna have to stop whining at me on Twitter and claiming you’re being ‘abused’ because your comments aren’t being published instantly and because the other commenters here call you on your sexist bullshit.

  • corvid

    It also kind of looks like she’s stepping off a cliff into an abyss… some unintentional truth there perhaps.

  • Martin

    Begga your pardon but not once did i say anything intimating it was glorious!!
    Cool profile name by the way, my great aunt was a Wren Officer during the war

  • Martin

    I think this happens in some Middle Eastern Countries

    • Oh really? Which ones?

      • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

        Let’s translate “Martin’s” comment:

        You are a bunch of joyless feminazis and you are spoiling the fun of pro rape miosogynists. I’m going to keep trolling because and will allude in every way I can to you being restrictive and puritanical to try to silence you.

  • Meghan Murphy

    Likely a reader marked your comments as spam. Maybe they were spammy, eh?

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    Extermination of sociopathic scum would indeed make the world a much better place.

  • stella

    While sex work advocates love to say how it’s “just another job”, what’s outlined in the manual highlights that it really is not. The potential exposure to bodily fluids and contagious illnesses in the sex/porn industry would never be acceptable by ordinary workplace safety standards– think of all the precautions taken by doctors/nurses/lab techs when interacting with the same stuff.

    • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

      Not to mention the potential exposure to beatings and murder. And of course our bodies are not a washing machine that can be detached from from us. They are us.

  • Martin

    Bronwyn i had thought the premise of this article was that legalisation had not improved the well being of woman working as prostitutes, i still dont believe that is the case.
    But i thank you for pointing out all these things about the NZPC and what their actual intentions seem to be. I am incredibly aghast at them, as you have explained their modus operandi does not at all seem be to look after these prostitutes health. Perhaps you or Meghan could put some direct questions to them and report back to us listeners. These woman clearly need much better advocates than the NZPC .
    Im glad to read in that article that the govt is not accepting the NZPC recommendation regarding immigration law change

    • Bronwyn Williams

      First, evidence does NOT indicate that decriminalisation of the sex trade has significantly improved the lives of prostitutes in New Zealand. It certainly hasn’t had the miraculous effect its proponents claimed.

      In fact, it has made New Zealand a soft target for sex traffickers – hence the blow out in the number of exploited, illegal immigrant prostitutes. More local women and girls, mostly indigenous, are also being trafficked into prostitution.

      Second, I doubt anyone at the NZPC would give me or Meghan the time of day, unless it was to abuse us.

      Third, the New Zealand government is not planning to review section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act, yet. But the NZPC is nothing if not persistent. No doubt they will keep lobbying, waiting for the new government to get comfortable. The Act is already securely in place – it probably won’t be too long before they get the ‘tweaks’ they want.

  • Martin

    Why i said that is I think if you have some direct dialogue with NZPC then sometimes just talking can be the way things can start happening/changing

    • Bronwyn Williams

      Martin, given your obvious interest in the welfare of prostitutes in New Zealand, perhaps you could approach the NZPC. Be prepared to grovel, however, because if they catch so much as a whiff of criticism of their motives or activities you risk being labelled ‘whorephobic’, and ignored.

  • marv

    “occupational choice” for women is determined by other social factors aside from poverty: growing up in a male dominant society that sexually objectifies women’s bodies, omnipresent porn, beauty purpose, sexual division of labor, sexual abuse, etc.

    Women’s occupational choice occurs within the perimeters of the lower sex class they occupy. They are occupied by men.

    Stop contributing to the imposition of The Occupation through the use of liberal choice propaganda.

  • Martin

    I was just saying everyone was just as bad as each other, a tribe going over to kill another tribe to take their land is just like white people coming over killing them to take their land. But the maori ate their victims which may make them a bit more ethical in some vegetarians eyes

    • FierceMild

      And I am “just saying” your justification is as nonsensical is it is unacceptable. You were not saying everyone was just as bad as each other; you were clearly using the violence practiced by native peoples to justify the use of violence against native peoples. One group of men killing each other and stealing resources from each other does not justify another group of men doing the same. In fact, the better a culture is at murder and theft – and this is where European culture comes in – the more despicable it is.

  • Bee Bee

    I’ve been listening to such bullshit mansplain’ all week.

  • Can’tUnseeIt

    Well really the idea of having to service an endless procession of male orgasms in order to pay ones bills is about as far from “liberty” as one can possibly get. Only a man could delude himself into believing such crap. Maybe you should read some first person accounts of women who have exited prostitution and maybe not just rely on what your “friend” told you. SMH

    • Martin

      Samantha didnt treat it with the disdain you do. She worked for a few hours and then went out partying, slept during the day and often went on overseas holidays, all while living in a penthouse flat and having expensive dogs.
      Who a you to take that choice away from her or any other person just so you dont have to have the thought you consider revolting of woman getting paid to have sex with men or woman

      • Can’tUnseeIt

        Actually it’s not the women I find revolting but rather the men who think they can take the moral high ground for buying the use of women and children’s bodies. Really a very twisted way you have of trying to justify your patronage and all too transparent actually. “Revolting” isn’t quite strong enough to accurately describe what I feel and think about men such as yourself.

        • Martin

          Ive never gone to a prostitute, im sorry you have jumped to the wrong conclusion on this. So you dont find it revolting that a woman choses to make money this way but you do a man who pays her. Ok double standards thats your right

          • Meghan Murphy

            That’s not a double standard. We also find rapists repulsive, though not the victims of rape… Similarly, we don’t blame workers for exploitative, unethical corporations.

          • Can’tUnseeIt

            You said it far more graciously than I could at this point.

      • FierceMild

        “woman getting paid to have sex with men or woman”

        Citation needed. Women don’t buy sex. If you’re going to imply this is normal you need to provide some evidence that at least 25% or more of the people buying sexual access to prostitutes are female.

  • will

    Wow. That’s some pretty formidable credentials. I guess we should all – especially the regular commenters here who have been in the sex trade – sit up and listen.

  • Martin

    Hating men is actually no different from racism, its stupid. Should i hate woman due to the likes Elizabeth Bathroy?

    • FierceMild

      Women hating men is no different than the victims of racism hating the perpetrators. A solid long-term plan? Probably not. Justifiable? Absolutely.

      If you like scifi, read N. K. Jemisin’s novel ‘The Fifth Season’. The relationship between Guardians and Orogenes might be a way for you to understand why it’s a rational response for women to hate men in a way that doesn’t threaten your sense of self quite as much as just listening to women appears to do.

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    As you had absolutely no reason to feel any grudge, your incredible benevolence is duly noted.

    And by the way I had to change accounts because I kept being marked as spam and I’m one of their supporters, and signed up as such. So you can keep your bizarre paranoia to yourself.

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    When I see you comment now you should add your signature. It goes like this:

    My troll name is Martin and I am pro rape and will continue to try to normalise the predatory misgoynistic behaviour of men. I am going to comment relentlessly and troll unstoppably on every article which even vaguely hints at facts or tries to improve the lot of women. I love prostitution. It’s my favourite pass time.

    • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

      Typos. Small screen. Sigh.

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    But then he couldn’t pretend he cared about women while actively campaigning for them to be used as fuck toys for the men who despise them.

  • FierceMild

    “Why these woman dont want to work in a brothel I don’t know”

    Yes you do, Martin, yes you do know.

  • FierceMild

    “Who am I too morally say she cant do whatever she wants to make money?”

    You are a human being with the capability to develop sound judgement and the ability to reason outside Patriarchal Capitalism. As such you in fact do have the right to say your friend should not sell her body to men to make money. You don’t have the right to say she can’t, but you do have the right to say she shouldn’t.

    Further, the focus in all conversations about prostitution really belongs on those who are purchasing the use of of other people’s bodies for sexual gratification. By your own moral code – such as it is – your friend is doing a job like any other. If that’s the case then you and I and everyone else absolutely have the right to criticize how the ‘product’ she’s selling effects society at large. If selling sexual access to your body is a job like any other then criticizing prostitution should be as uncontroversial as criticizing fast food, or strip mining, or any other industry that harms communities.

  • Meghan Murphy

    Women are not getting ahead by working in prostitution… It’s the only ‘career’ wherein more ‘experience’ offers you less ‘job security’. Women age out of prostitution very quickly and are most in demand when they are young (i.e. ‘inexperienced’). Never mind the toll it takes on women’s bodies and minds.

    • Mexican American Lesbian

      Young, as in pandering to society’s ephebophile culture.

  • marv

    Why don’t men sell their bodies to women to pay off debts and have more safety prostituting? Men demand women in prostitution, women don’t demand men to do it. And don’t blame it on natural tendencies. It’s misogyny, a political oppression.

  • marv

    You should start stripping and prostituting. Don’t endorse it for women if you aren’t willing to try it yourself. Then you could afford to buy that expensive read.

  • Martin

    You didnt answer my question. You said men as a sex do. I dont do anything like beat barrer bash and rape so dont you label me as one just because i have being born with male dna

    • corvid

      You are here defending the inherently violent institution of prostitution. That makes you complicit.

    • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

      You already hate women and you are not in charge of anything on this page, including me. You don’t get to demand that I answer your pitiful meaningless bullshit questions, you have absolutely no input on what I answer or respond to. So sorry if you’re used to beating and battering women into submission that won’t work here fucknuts.

      You’ve proven you loathe women irrefutably by your endless whining misogynistic gynophobic imbecilic gibbering, frothing and slobbering. If not an actual rapist you are very much in favour of rape, as you already irrefutably know no woman on earth who takes money to be used as a fuck toy has meaningfully consented to sex.

      I will label you personally as whatever I like, I will say anything I choose about anything I choose and the only person who gets a say in that is the moderator. Your permission is neither required nor requested.

      However, it’s becoming very amusing watching you get increasingly enraged at being unable to stop me or any decent person here from telling you that we see clearly your filthy reasons for campaigning hard to keep women being abused raped and degraded by men like you..

      We see you very well. Now, shoo.

  • Martin

    Id like to see that happen

  • corvid

    That is a moral stance, silly.

  • corvid

    No Martin, it’s not at all like your labouring job. Go and “work” getting your asshole pounded by strange men all day and you’ll see that.

  • marv

    Legalizing capitalism hasn’t benefited workers. It has publicly sanctioned our oppression. Same for women with decriminalized/lawful pimps and johns.

    You have less than zero understanding of power systems analysis and of compassion.

  • FierceMild

    You are responsible for your own actions. At the moment those actions include the virulent defense of the sexual subordination of women and the commodification of our bodies as sex toys for men. In short, you are, on this very thread, participating in the long history of men’s hostile takeover of women’s lives and bodies.

  • Elise

    The law may not allow you to buy the body of a woman in Saudi Arabia, but it seems the authorities let you do it if you happen to employ her as a domestic worker.

    • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

      And “Martin” couldn’t give a shit what happens to any woman anywhere ever, anyway so long as men still get to use them as fuck toys.

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    And now you’re a sad Daily Fail reader all attempt at any kind of non-idiotic response gone.

  • Meghan Murphy

    I can’t take credit! It was written by Bronwyn Williams 🙂

    • Goddess_of_Dischord

      Thanks to her then haha really all the woman who do work on FC <3

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    Sick of looking at that whining, mewling, puling crap being the newest comment. So know this – if you are a man in favour of prostitution you are a filthy misogynist. If you are a man who even mentions the words choice when talking about prostituion you had better have been letting men empty their possibly diseased fluids all over you for money for at least two years. If you pretend you are pro-prostitution for the sake of all women kind we know you are a fucking liar and a sleazy pervert. You will not get away with that garbage here

  • ohffs was namesareirrelevant

    They’re not sex addicts. They’re the entitled shit stains of humanity who enjoy harming women. They must be locked up.

    Ctation needed re women buying sex – actually no citation needed at all as we are discussing the fact that men assault women in this way in enormous numbers and that’s the topic at hand.

    And no, nobody would ever dismiss anything related to punishing men for using women as fuck toys as misandry, or ever use that MRA snivel to try to dismiss any of the well documented and irrefutable horrors men choose to inflict upon women in astonishing numbers.

    Nobody except a hate fille misogynist trying to derail and deflect.

  • Meghan Murphy

    We advocate to decriminalize those who sell sex. Consider not telling us what to do unless you’re willing to understand our position.

  • Meghan Murphy


  • Meghan Murphy

    Most prostituted women/girls aren’t really making boatloads of cash…

  • Meghan Murphy

    In Germany, women make less money under legalization, and are expected to do more, because of competition.

  • Meghan Murphy

    Why should it be illegal to buy heroin?

  • Meghan Murphy

    Most women do it because they have no other option.

  • Meghan Murphy

    No moreso than prescription drugs like oxy, for ex.

    Also, it’s not heroin’s fault. The problem is the addict, not the drug, and addiction is generally rooted in trauma.

  • Meghan Murphy

    lol come on. That’s a silly way to frame what I’m saying.

  • Meghan Murphy

    Yes in Europe. As someone else already pointed out, most of the women prostituted in Germany are not from Germany, but from Eastern Europe. They are poor, and have no other options. If German women were ‘choosing’ prostitution in droves, it wouldn’t be necessary to bring in poor women from Eastern Europe who have no other choice.

  • Meghan Murphy


    • Barzini

      You did

      You think it should be legal to sell heroin but illegal to pay for a prostitute

      • Meghan Murphy


        Anyway, women are not drugs. It is not ok for men to buy access to women’s bodies. If men would like to buy drugs, I have no problem with that. People buy drugs every day.

      • radwonka

        Well context matters. Depoliticizing everything doesnt help.

  • Meghan Murphy

    Oh ya those Roma women are just on a fun, paid vacation.

  • Barzini

    In the West they are the over whelming majority

    • Meghan Murphy


  • Meghan Murphy